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Calories and Macros – The Basics

That’s 200 Calories in one mouthful!

​Embarking on a new way of eating and making better food choices can be a daunting prospect. To help those of you new to tracking what you eat or if you just want to be more mindful of your caloric intake, here is a very basic introduction:

First, in a literal sense, a Calorie is always a Calorie since it’s a unit of energy and, as Einstein showed us, energy cannot just disappear.

Second, if you ever need it for a pub quiz(!) a food Calorie (properly known as a kilocalorie, or 1000 calories is the amount of energy required to heat one kilogram of air-free water by 1 °C.

[Another bit of science for you: what we all call “a calorie” is actually 1000 calories, scientifically referred to as a kilocalorie (or “Calorie” with a capital ‘C’) and printed on the side of food packets as “kcal”. But don’t fret or get confused, every popular reference to “calories” in magazines, cookbooks, diet books and the numbers on food packets are all referring to what we all know as “calories”. “Calories”, “calories” and “kcals” are all used interchangeably when it comes to food.]

Macronutrients, or ‘macros’, are nutrients that your body requires in large amounts. There are three primary macronutrients, protein, carbohydrates and fat. Alcohol, technically speaking, is the fourth macro but (before you say it) not one our bodies need at all and certainly not in large amounts!

Micronutrients, or ‘micros’, are nutrients referred to as vitamins and minerals consumed in small amounts.Protein
Protein’s primary role in the body is to promote growth, development and to help repair cells. Protein has a high thermic effect, meaning it requires a large amount of energy to break it down and digest. Higher protein diets can be a fantastic tool when looking to lose body fat due to it’ effects on muscle mass retention and appetite control.
One gram (1g) of protein equates to four Calories.

Carbohydrates
Although there is no physiological requirement for carbohydrates in terms of simply remaining alive, carbohydrates are the body’s primary energy source. Carbohydrates play an important role in digestive health, metabolism, athletic performance, mood and even sleep. The more physically active you are (and the more energy you use, the more carbs you may benefit from.
One gram of carbohydrate equates to 4 Calories.

Fat
As an essential nutrient, fat plays a crucial role in both optimal health, and athletic performance. Fat is directly involved in the production and regulation of the sex steroid hormones in addition to playing a pivotal part in supporting a healthy immune system.
1 gram of fat equates to 9 Calories.

Alcohol
Alcohol is not required by the body and has a unique metabolic pattern relative to the other macronutrients.
1 gram of alcohol equates to 7 Calories.

To calculate your total calories, simply multiply the number of grams of each macronutrient by its Calorie count per gram. Note – by tracking your macronutrients, you automatically track your Calories too. To learn more about tracking your food intake, read my blog ‘Macro Tracking Made Simple’.

Kevin Garde
Nutritionist and Bodyscan Consultant