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There is still some debate as to whether fasted cardio is superior to fed cardio for fat loss (once total calories and protein are matched).

The general premise behind performing cardio after an overnight fast is that it accelerates fat loss more than if you completed the same work in a fed state.

To shed light on the topic, Schoenfeld and colleagues tested body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise in 20 healthy females who were randomly assigned to either group.

Following four weeks of aerobic exercises during dieting conditions (ie, being in an energy deficit), both groups lost body weight and fat mass. The key finding was that there were no significant between-group differences shown in any outcome measure. Put simply, the fasted group did not lose significantly more body fat compared to the fed group.

If that’s the case, what is behind the idea that fasted cardio could be superior for fat loss?​For that to be the case, fasted exercise would have to achieve one of the following:

• Affect 24-hr energy expenditure so that the energy/calorie deficit is increased
• Suppress appetite leading to a reduction in calorie intake
• Have a protein-sparing effect delivering higher retention of fat-free mass (and therefore making a higher proportion of the weight-loss to be fat)

None of these conditions have been shown to be true!

Interestingly, a recent study on skipping breakfast before resistance training found a reduction in performance on the bench press and back squat. The male participants were resistance-trained and habitual breakfast eaters, providing solid evidence that fasted resistance-training performance among those who normally have breakfast may be compromised over the short term.

Conclusion
If you prefer, and feel better, training fasted without any comprise on performance, then go for it! But if you feel terrible training fasted and/or are only doing so for the proposed fat loss benefits, reconsider your strategy and include a meal/snack/shake beforehand instead. Fat loss will not differ once total calorie and protein intake remain the same. As always, for fat loss success, consistency and patience is key! Understand your fat and muscle composition with a Dexa body scan.

Kevin Garde
Bodyscan Consultant and Nutritonist

​Tracking is a fantastic awareness tool that I encourage most of my clients to trial for at least a few weeks. As touched on in a previous article, macronutrients, or ‘macros’, are nutrients that your body requires in large amounts. There are three primary macronutrients: protein, carbohydrates and fat.

​To make food (calorie) tracking more straightforward, try these steps below:

Step 1:
Tracking can be a daunting prospect especially if you’re new to it. To make life a little easier why not focus on counting calories and protein only as opposed to tracking all three macronutrients.

For fat loss, a change in mass is determined by energy balance. As such, calories are the most important factor – the magnitude of your energy (calorie) deficit over time will determine how much body fat you lose.

A secondary focus should be towards protein intake. Protein’s primary role in the body is to promote growth, development and to help repair cells. Higher protein diets can also be a fantastic tool if you want to lose body fat due to its effects on muscle mass retention and appetite control.

​The mix of carbohydrate and fat that fills the remainder of your calorie allotment can be left to personal preference. A sensible approach would be to avoid skewing it too far in either direction.​Step 2:
Being flexible within your approach can provide even greater freedom. For example, I am an advocate of encouraging a weekly calorie total to aim for instead of shooting for an exact daily intake.

This weekly “bigger picture” approach means you have the option of some higher calorie days (eg, when having a meal-out or socialising) offset by some lower calories days.

For protein, I recommend aiming for a similar daily protein target range but hitting an exact number is not necessary for most. A default recommendation for fat loss is often around 2 grams per kilo of total body weight – this may vary depending on muscle mass, body fat levels and activity.

Take-home:
There is no need to overcomplicate your tracking. Sticking to a fat loss programme while trying to juggle work and family commitments can cause enough stress.

But if you love detail, numbers and spreadsheets and want to track all macros (plus fibre and micronutrition), then go for it!

Most, however, will get great results following a weekly calorie and daily protein count only. If you’ve had difficulty or get stressed attempting to meet too many daily targets in the past, I’d suggest focusing on calories and protein and set flexible ranges that lead to the greatest adherence.

Kevin Garde
Nutritionist and Bodyscan Consultant

Check out PRISM Nutrition here

When Bodyscan customers mention the nutritional element of their plans to lose body fat or gain muscle (and not many do), they often cite one or several of the following myths.

Look again at why these nutritional misconceptions may be undermining your fat loss efforts.

1. Eat organic food   In a systemic review assessing the nutrition-related health effects of organic foods it was concluded that “evidence is lacking for nutrition-related health effects that result from the consumption of organically produced foodstuffs.” Money saver! Eating organic food without an energy deficit in place will not lead to body fat loss. Energy balance matters!

2. Eliminate carbohydrates   An energy surplus or deficit determines the total amount of fat gained or lost over a 24-hour period and not the quantity of carbohydrates alone. 3. Do fasted cardio   There is no plausible mechanism for it to be superior to fed cardio for fat loss once calorie intake is matched. The decision to do fasted cardio or not so be based on personal preference. Check out a more detailed explanation here.

4. Eat low fat   An energy surplus or deficit determines the total amount of fat gained or lost over a 24-hour period and not the quantity of dietary fat alone. 

5. Eat little and often   Eating little and often and does not boost metabolism or ‘stoke the metabolic fire’.  Meal frequency is relative to the amount of food consumed (metabolic response to eating correlates with volume of food). For fat loss, choose a meal frequency that suits personal preference, lifestyle, and one that leads to the greatest adherence.

What’s that all about?

6. Go on a detox diet   To shed light on the popular surge in detox/cleansing diets to facilitate toxin elimination, researchers Klein and Kiat concluded that “there is no compelling evidence to support the use of detox diets for weight management or toxin elimination.” Save your money, folks – your liver and kidneys tend to do a pretty good job without the extra assistance!

7. Restrict food after 19.00   An energy surplus or deficit determines the total amount of fat gained or lost over 24-hour period and not some arbitrary time point. 100kcals at 18:59 is still 100kcals at 19:01. Pick a meal pattern that is in line with goals, preference, and lifestyle.

8. Go keto   In a tightly controlled metabolic ward study published in 2016, there was no physiologically advantage in energy expenditure or body fat loss reported in response to a high carbohydrate baseline diet versus an isocaloric ketogenic diet. A ketogenic diet may be a useful tool for some for fat loss and/or weight management but unnecessarily restrictive for most.

9. Remove sugar   A study in overweight subjects found no significant differences in body fat levels between a low versus high sucrose diet (4% vs. 43% of total energy intake, respectively). Both calories and macronutrients were matched between groups. Again, this reiterates the point that for fat loss, energy balance matters! Choosing whole foods for the most part may make the process easier.

10. Eat breakfast   Contrary to popular belief, breakfast is not the most important meal of the day and it does not kickstart your metabolism. If you are not hungry when you wake up and are looking to lose body fat, you don’t need to force down a breakfast, particularly not a sub-optimal one (e.g. croissant and a large latte). Breakfast or no breakfast, make your first meal of the day a protein-packed nutritious one.

Take-Home
Adopting any one of the strategies highlighted may help you lose body fat, but only if doing so leads to a reduction in calorie intake and thus a sustained energy/calorie deficit over time.

Don’t feel you must to do any of the above to get fat loss results, particularly if it is undermining your progress – pick a strategy that you enjoy, suits your lifestyle and be consistent. Adherence trumps all.

Kevin Garde
Bodyscan Consultant and Nutritionist

Traditionally, people in the UK seek to lose weight more often during two specific times of the year. One of these is the New Year when many of us decide to make a resolution to get healthier or simply want to shift the post-festive bulge. The other is during the run-up to summer when many of us want to get beach-ready for our holidays.

Of course, there’s no excuse not to eat healthily and exercise more all year round, and some researchers have hypothesised that the additional pressure of having a goal weight and date can cause us to fail in our endeavours to reach a healthy, attainable weight. It could, therefore, be beneficial for some to simply begin to enjoy a weight-loss regime without a goal in mind – so why not start today?

Why weight isn’t a good measurement of fitness

Whether you’re a New Year’s dieter, a summer beach-body desirer or simply want to improve your current fitness levels, it’s important to understand the best metrics to measure your journey towards a leaner, healthier lifestyle – and why checking your weight alone isn’t the best of ideas.

Many people make a direct correlation between weight loss and fitness when the inverse is often true. Muscle weighs more than body fat, and the addition of lean muscle can cause a person to weigh more. With this in mind, it makes more sense to gain an accurate body fat measurement with a DEXA body composition instead.

DEXA body fat measurement London: what you’ll learn

DEXA body composition (Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) is a method of measuring body fat, muscle mass and bone density. It’s an accurate way of estimating body composition and can be used for everything from monitoring changes in fitness levels to diagnosing nutritional performance.

If you’re in the process of improving your overall health and fitness, you may find a DEXA fat and muscle measurement to be useful. Why not book a body scan appointment today to access the best way to measure body fat? It’s a fantastic way to gain an understanding of how to tailor your diet and workout regime to gain the best results.

If you want to improve your body composition (lose body fat and/or gain muscle), you should focus on achieving consistent, good-quality sleep.

Sleep is essential for mood, energy levels and performance. Slow-wave or ‘deep’ sleep is restorative and promotes anabolic processes in the body that help to build new muscle tissue and promote recovery after exercise.

Conversely, a lack of sleep or sleep deficiency can have many adverse side-effects, such as hindering exercise recovery and reducing exercise-induced adaptations (eg, the ability to gain muscle or get fitter).

From a fat loss perspective, sleep deficiency is associated with an increase in calorie consumption and a decrease in activity and exercise levels, which will ultimately lead to fat gain over time.

Insufficient sleep has also been shown to lead to unfavourable body composition results with a greater loss of lean mass during intentional calorie restriction. Similarly, sleep restriction can negatively affect appetite control through its impact on hormones that are associated with hunger, satiety and food reward, meaning you’re more likely to eat too much.

In a highly controlled, metabolic ward study on 12-healthy young males, researchers found that fragmented sleep (induced by repeated alarms at 90-minute intervals over one night) reduced rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep more than the normal, non-fragmented sleep. 

No, no, no!

Due to effects on hunger hormones, the fragmented sleep group reported less fullness and a greater desire to eat. Not what you want when your goal is to lose body fat! Interestingly, reduced REM sleep is associated with being overweight, further suggesting that REM sleep may influence appetite regulation.

Good sleep quality (with respect to timing, duration & intensity) on a consistent basis, however, can improve memory, cognition and increase total energy expenditure (meaning it’s easier to keep your weight under control.

Here are some simple but effective tips to help ensure good quality sleep:

  1. Make sure your bedroom is cool and pitch black.
  2. No blue lights (screens) close to bedtime. Blue light can help suppress the production of melatonin, which helps to control your sleep & wake cycles. Use settings on your phone/tablet/laptop to automatically switch off blue light later in the day.
  3. Aim to be in bed at the same time every night and wake at a similar time each morning. This is linked to your circadian rhythm and may help maximise your sleep intensity (restorative or ‘deep’ sleep).
  4. Aim to get sunlight exposure each morning e.g. a walk outside before noon.
  5. Avoid caffeine for about 10 hours before bed. Caffeine has a half-life of about 6 hours, meaning half of the caffeine content in a coffee or energy drink can remain in your system for up to 6 hours after consumption and negatively disrupt sleep quality.
  6. Try not to consume an excessively large meal right before bed because sleep decreases the activity of the digestive tract.
  7. On the other hand, some people struggle to sleep when feeling hungry. Adjust your meal pattern so you’re neither hungry or ‘stuffed’ at bedtime.

Conclusion
As well as the positive effect of good-quality sleep on mood, memory and wellbeing, good sleeping habits can assist fat-loss and overall body composition.

It works the other way too – losing body fat and attaining a healthier weight can improve sleep quality and duration. A ‘virtuous circle’ of better sleep and better health!

Kevin Garde
Bodyscan Consultant and Nutritionist